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Some major Joint Development and Production Projects

+ Brahmos
+ 5th Generation Fighter Aircraft
+ Medium Transport Aircraft Development Programme (MTA)
+ Akula II Nuclear Submarine
+ Space Co-operation GLONASS
+ Joint Military Exercises

The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile with the range of 280 km is based on 3M-55 Onyx missile designed by Russia’s NPO Mashinostroyenia. It is repeatedly cited as the shining example of joint research, development and production by India and Russia. The Indian Navy has already inducted the sea version of the missile. The land and air versions of the missile are in the process of development and likely induction. The Russian military so far has not inducted it. Russia needs to change its laws before its induction, which it has promised to do. The two countries have also decided to jointly market BrahMos to third countries by 2007, by which time India and Russia are expected to finalize sale procedures and put into space at least 18 satellites under GLONASS to track the missile’s movements. BrahMos is just one example of joint collaboration. The IPR agreement has cleared the deck for more such projects. In view of difficulties and snags in the development of indigenous technologies, such collaboration might be the best way for India to acquire and develop new technologies.

5th Generation Fighter Aircraft
For several years, the two sides have been considering joint development of the 5th generation multi-role fighter aircraft and transport aircraft. The intention was reiterated during the December 2005 visit of the Indian Prime Minister. The Russian government has already selected the Sukhoi aviation firm for the purpose and likewise allocated funds. However, the size of the Sukhoi aircraft does not find favour with Indians. In Dec 2010 India and Russia firmed up plans to jointly design and manufacture a most advanced 5th Generation stealth fighter that may touch the $30 billion mark. The project will be jointly developed by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited of India and Sukhoi Design Bureau and Rosoboronexport of Russia.

Medium Transport Aircraft Development Programme (MTA)
The development of MTA has been assigned greater urgency in India. MTA negotiations began in the late 1990s and in 2000 the $700-million project became part of the 10-year Indian-Russian military-technical cooperation programme. The investment was shared between Russian aircraft maker Irkut and India’s HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd). Subsequently, differences between the two came to light as the Russians wanted 19.5 tonnes of carrying capacity while the Indians are satisfied with 14-16 tonnes. Russia wants to develop PS-12 engine to power the aircraft at the cost of $3-4 billion. The Indians are inclined to use French or US engines. 48 Recent reports suggest the sides are close to agreement to resolve the issue. The cargo carrying capacity of the MTA will be 20 tonnes, but the Indian MTAs will be powered by Snecma Moteurs’ CFM 56-7 Turbofans. Solutions for the glass cockpits will be considered from the French firm Thales. IAF will acquire 45 and the Russian side 60 units.

Akula II Nuclear Submarine
In 2011by May-June, the country will get the K-152 Nerpa Akula-II nuclear-powered submarine from Russia on a 10-year lease as part of a secretive 2004 deal. The Akula II is approximately 230 tons larger in displacement and 2.5m greater in LOA compared to that of the Akula I's. The added space was used for an active noise reduction system. . The first submarine will be named INS Chakra. Whereas the Russian Navy's Akula-II is equipped with 28 nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a striking range of 3,000 km (162 nmi; 186 mi)-range 3M-54 Klub nuclear-capable missiles. Three hundred Indian Navy personnel are being trained in Russia for the operation of these submarines.

Space Co-operation GLONASS
During President Putin’s visit to India in December 2004, an agreement was signed between Roskosmos and ISRO on the joint use of the Soviet era Global Navigational Satellite System (GLONASS) by making it fully functional by joint efforts, including the launching of new Russian satellites from Indian launch pads with the help of Indian vehicles. During Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s December 2005 Moscow visit, an agreement was signed on measures to protect technology during long-term co-operation in joint development, operation and use of the GLONASS for peaceful purposes.

Joint Military Exercises
During past couple of years, Indo-US military-to-military co-operation has greatly expanded. In contrast, Indo-Russian defence co-operation has largely been in the military-technical field. Recently, Russia also has shown greater interest in boosting military-to-military ties.